Saturday, August 31, 2019

REFRAMING FALSE STORIES: thanking Leroy Little Bear

by Mike Bonifer

In a presentation he gave at the Quantum Storytelling Conference in Las Cruces, NM, in 2013, Leroy Little Bear, an elder in the Blackfeet Nation in Alberta, Canada, and founding director of the Native American Studies program at Harvard, taught me about a big difference between indigenous peoples' stories and what he calls 'Western' storytelling. 

He did it simply, using a whiteboard in a classroom at New Mexico State University where he gave his talk.

"In the Western mind," he said, "stories live in time. That means a lie..." 

He drew a small 'x' on the whiteboard.

"...told at one point in time, will disappear over time." 

He drew a line the length of his arm, tipped it with an arrow, and added a '0' at the end of the arrow.

"In the Western mind, a lie told today will be of no significance two years from now. The lie, and all stories, disappear with time. 

Then he drew a square on the whiteboard. 
"In the indigenous mind, stories live in place."
He drew a small 'x' inside the box.
"A lie told in a place lives in that place. Will never leave that place. That means anyone visiting that place, for the rest of time, will be visited and affected by that lie, and by all the stories that happened there. The stories do not go away with time. They stay. They live in place." 

In American culture, we see the Western storytelling model in time-eroded and covered-up historical narratives of the indigenous tribes, slave labor, and capital markets, where money has a time value and time has a money value, and so acceleration and time/timing of transactions takes precedence over what the transaction is or does to its actors. 

We see the clash of Western and indigenous story frames in the 2016 protest at the Standing Rock reservation, where a linear, time-based narrative of capital investment and extraction (the pipeline), cut through a palimpsest of 'stories living in the land,' like a scalpel opening a body without any intention of healing it.

Closer to home and today, a man I have done business with over the years made me a promise in 2004 that he has not kept. In exchange for equity in a company the two of us launched, I told him if it was successful, I'd like it to pay for my children's college educations. He agreed. I got no equity. To date, the dude (of course it was a dude. a white dude.) has probably made $30 million personally from that company and what has spun out of it. He is a founder of a venture capital fund. Owns a virtual reality company. Is personal friends with Al Gore and Meg Ryan and Bono. Bought a second home in Aspen and completely remodeled it. Flies private jets. Bought an immersive theater company. Has screening rooms in all his houses. Drives a high-end Tesla. Me? I owe $164,000 on student loans I took out based on a handshake with the dude 15 years ago. Stupid, yes? Where was Leroy Little Bear when I needed him? Even before I knew of it, I was operating with an indigenous mindset, and the dude with whom I'd launched the company was operating 100% in Western mode. The man with the millions counted on the promise he made to me going away, and for the most part, it has. He has put enough time between him and the promise that it is invisible to anyone but the two of us. Is there a contract? No there is not. Do I have legal recourse? Not that I can afford. 

Meanwhile, the time pressure on servicing the student loan grows. The burden of carrying it weighs heavier by the week. Ticking clocks are a Western story trope. As the promise dissipates, greed fills the vacuum. The unchecked capitalist fever--of acquisition, extraction, exploitation, consumption, status, self-orientation--builds, with no regard to the land or its people. With no concerns of equitable allocations, or of win-win games. Only stakeholder optimization in win-lose scenarios. 

Typically, in Western stories, promises are made to be broken, and broken badly--or what's the point? Typically, in Western stories, there are winners and losers, or what's the point? It's why there's a famous saying in Hollywood, "It's not enough that I succeed. Everyone else must fail." To a totally Westernized mind, the man with the millions is the winner and I am the loser in this story.

Thanks in no small way to Leroy Little Bear and others, including Joseph Gladstone, David
Boje, Gregory Cajete and Grace Ann Rosile - elders in our tribe of storytellers who hold deep understanding of indigenous stories, and have roots in Blackfeet, Navajo, Nez Perce and Hopi cultures - I now have better framing and language for the scenario I have described here, as I've experienced it.

The white dude who's made millions? I see him not as a winner (his version of our story) or a villain (in my linear telling of it) but as a Coyote character in it. A mythic trickster. He comes from somewhere (in the white dude's case, he comes from Indiana, same as me) and is going no place in particular. As Coyote his motive has never been to hurt me or my family. He is without motive. He is pure opportunist. What he says and does can have malicious outcomes, but is not said or done with malicious intent. He does it to stir things up. To prompt questions. To provoke thoughts and actions.

There is no beginning, middle, or end, to our story. For over 20 years, Coyote has come and gone in my life at odd intervals, each time to and from a place where the promise re-visits us. A party. A phone call. A meal. A visit. Coyote knows he made a promise. His intention in returning to a place is not to make good on his promise, it's to make another promise that will be broken all over all over again. This is his trick. 

A week ago, Coyote showed up again, with another promise. He phoned and told me (excitedly! - he is always excited when he arrives, inevitably in a hurry but going nowhere in particular) that he would introduce me to a high status person. A New York Times best-selling author, an expert on entrepreneurship, whose organization has billions to invest. This is the Crow in our story. The character who can see to the far horizon. Can see the curves of land and spirals of time. Coyote tells me that how I tell stories can help Crow realize his vision of visiting far horizons. 

Coyote says his Russian Assistant will set up a phone call with the Crow, him, and me, in Coyote's office the following week. 

The meeting does not happen. Instead, Coyote emails me an introduction to a small non-profit with a wobbly business model - in our story this is a Flock of Geese, who honk a lot, but do not make sense.   

I tell Coyote this is not what was promised. I tell him conversations with Geese are useless. That he promised a meeting with Crow.

"Crow left his company," he says. "It was a surprise." 

This morning I called Crow's company, and asked if he still worked there. The person who answered the phone said yes, Crow is here. 

I text Coyote: Crow has not left his company. He is still there. Please make the intro.

Coyote forwards me an email he received from Crow, announcing that he will be leaving his company at the end of the year. Four and a half months from now. 

In the Western way, the white dude has time-shifted his story to justify his behavior and ease his conscience, and he gaslights me in the process. What was true yesterday is not true today. What is not true today will be true four and a half months from now. It's a shell game. Pacification. Stalling. It is the same strategy that pipeline companies use to run their construction through native soil without accounting for the ancestral stories living in the land. A Westernized telling of our story counts on time to do its work. Over time, the 'x' of a promise, will become a zero, a statement hollowed of all meaning. Empty. Distant. Forgotten. Or at least plausibly deniable. 

When, by comparison, I frame our story as indigenous--as a story living in place--I experience it in a different way. As non-linear. I experience it as the comings-and-goings of a Coyote who makes promises without intent, malicious or otherwise. I can understand that Coyote and I keep bumping into each other on our life's journey because our stories are forever entangled. I can appreciate that the positives and negatives of our 20-year relationship co-exist simultaneously, undiminished by time. I can see that this is why I am still in conversation with the man. Not because I will ever see a check for $164,000. No chance of that. Coyote never makes promises in order to keep them. Nor does he make them in order to break them. He makes them because they seem like an interesting thing to say. He knows something will come of them, and neither he, nor anyone else, knows what. (Think of what Coyote might have stirred up at Crow's company by sharing news that Crow will be flying in four and a half months.) 
What comes of a promise made by a trickster is not up to the trickster, but up to me.  When I frame our story as indigenous, I understand that what will happen in the four and a half months between today and the day Crow flies from his current perch, is not Coyote's to determine. The choices I make, the path I walk from here, will shape the future as I experience it. 

When I frame our story as indigenous, I can be entertained by it. I can laugh. I can write this. 

And as I write this, my friend Shannon Lee is currently caught up in a very public clash between Western and indigenous ways of experiencing a story. Shannon's father, the legendary martial artist and movie star, Bruce Lee, is depicted (by actor Mike Moh) in the writer/director Quentin Tarantino's new film, Once Upon a Time in Hollywood. There's a fight scene in the film involving a fictionalized version of Bruce Lee that no more resembles the real Bruce Lee than a toy action figure in a child's sandbox. Says Shannon, in an interview for the entertainment news site, The Wrap. “She added: ‘I understand they want to make the Brad Pitt character this super bad-ass who could beat up Bruce Lee. But they didn’t need to treat him in the way that white Hollywood did when he was alive.’” (Molloy, T. 2019)
The hokey story treatment to which Shannon alludes includes having the make-believe Bruce Lee refer to the boxer Muhammed Ali as ‘Cassius Clay’ which Ali always called his ‘slave name.’ Ali changed his name from Cassius Clay to Muhammed Ali in 1964. Once Upon a Time In Hollywood is set in 1969. Because Westernized stories are tied to time, the distance in time makes the fiction more palatable to a Western mind. The story takes place 50 years ago. What difference to a Western mind does a five-year gap fifty years ago make? In this framing, Tarantino’s fiction is only off by 10%. “90% accurate!” is what I imagine the studio spin on Tarantino’s depiction of Bruce Lee would be.
For Shannon Lee, for many masters teaching today in the dojo, and millions of lifelong fans of her father, the legend of Bruce Lee lives, not in time, as a Western storyteller like Tarantino would have it, but in place, fully present, as a philosophy, a way of life. 
Shannon herself oversees Bruce Lee Enterprises. Her work is keeping her father’s story alive, not as cartoony fictions, but in ways that are as alive and relevant today as they ever were. That Tarantino scripted Bruce Lee referring to Muhammed Ali by his slave name five years after he’d changed it is a weak sauce cooked up by a storyteller who wants to extract value from Bruce Lee’s story without participating authentically in it. This is a story approach I imagine would sound familiar to the Dakota and Lakota people of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, and all other North American indigenous tribes too.
My father worshipped Muhammed Ali,” says Shannon Lee. 

Thank you, Leroy Little Bear, for showing me a way.

Molloy, Tim (2019) Bruce Lee’s Daughter Saddened by ‘Mockery’ in ‘Once Upon a Time … in Hollywood’ (Exclusive)   The Wrap.  July 29, 2019

 Mike Bonifer is the founder of  


, a global network of storytelling specialists, who combine art, business, technology and social responsibility. 

Their stories are informed by cutting edge research on how and why stories emerge in networks, influence behaviors and are likely to shape the future. 
This work helps their client companies create more meaningful and rewarding relationships with their employees, partners and customers.      

Friday, July 26, 2019


Belonging can also be thought of as a longing to be” - Peter Block

“The biggest disease today is not leprosy or tuberculosis, but rather the feeling of not belonging” -  Mother Teresa

Diversity Developments. What’s the Buzz?

Why, in this data-overloaded world full of new technologies and techniques, does knowledge take so long to spread? Literally since the last century (!) I have been exhorting leaders to harness the richness of diversity and benefit from a massive impact on organisational performance. Diversity unleashes creativity, increases engagement, leads to better sense-making, problem solving and decisions.

Emeritus Professor of Organizational Behavior at INSEAD André Laurent discovered a fascinating phenomenon. In brief, “the best teams rely on the difference and uniqueness of their members to create something better than can be produced by a mono-cultural team”. He was one of the first to show how “differences can become a source of synergy and competitive advantage when they are recognised, understood and appreciated”. (Laurent, A. 2019)

Subsequent research has verified his discovery. And we now see that:

·         workplaces around the world are becoming more diverse
·         societal tensions around matters of difference put pressure on organisations to act deftly and with urgency
·         the jury is in: diversity holds the potential to impact positively on organisational performance. It should be seen as an opportunity to be grasped and not as an issue to be ‘managed’
·         many commentators now speak of developing workplace diversity beyond inclusion, to belonging
·         a large number of approaches and methods are being advocated (Bookstore shelves creak under the weight of diversity and inclusion books - many about ‘what’ to do, and far fewer on ‘how’ to do it)

Leaders are faced with a decision on the extent to which they wish to “push” internal diversity, and to what end:

Their choice will determine the ‘intervention’ programme that they opt for. In considering their options, organisational leaders need to fully understand:

·         what is meant by the notions of diversity and belonging
·         how they may go about putting their decided, desired position in place

After you have considered the following notes on diversity and belonging and thought about the position you feel is right for your own situation; we offer a menu of approaches and activities that will help you engage with the thinking, feeling and doing that may hold merit for your organisation.


Diversity of viewpoints and approaches strengthens decision-making, sustainability and performance. It is essential to the well-being of our communities, including workplace communities. “Observing nature, we see that diversity is essential to balance, wholeness, and resilience. Ecosystems thrive when a variety of species of plants and animals nourish each other. Diverse environments are much stronger and less susceptible to pests and disease than mono-crop fields. The world is a relational system full of complex inter-dependence among very different creatures. If we want

sustainable communities, we must always welcome the “other” and learn to see our neighbor as ourselves. Without it, we do not have community at all, but just egoic enclaves”.  (Rohr, R. 2016)    

Diversity comes in many guises. It is not confined to the usual categories that we focus on the most: ethnicity, religion, age, gender.  The types of diversity are legion. As an example, take one of the lesser known experiential and behavioural differences between people, captured by construal level theory. (Hamilton, R. 2015)
In essence, the theory holds that psychological-distance gaps between people arise from dimensions of the:

·         temporal distance (past present or future focus)
·         social distance (connection push or pull)
·         spatial distance (physical location from face to face, next door, faraway places, ‘boardroom and garden’ situations)
·         experiential distance (reality, perception, sensation, imagination, dreams, reverie)

How people perceive, behave, decide, connect – are functions of these dimensions, and clashes occur when there is ‘distance’ or difference between them. (Williams, G with Rosenstein, D. 2016)

Overcoming these gaps and enabling belonging requires us to become what evolutionary psychologist Peter Gilbert terms being “prosocial”.


People don’t always see eye to eye.  Each person’s experiences, exposure to various influencers, and their conditioning, lead them to their own protective filters, stereotyping, perceptions, cognitive understanding, prejudices and biases (conscious and unconscious) and determine how they relate to others – especially those from different cultures, ethnicities, religions, belief systems, social classes, genders, sexual preferences, ages, personalities, education levels, language, lifestyles, thinking styles, physical and mental abilities, areas of special giftedness, roles... and so on.

“…we every one of us have our peculiar den, which refracts and corrupts the light of nature, because of the differences of impressions as they happen in a mind prejudiced or prepossessed”. (Francis Bacon)

More than we are consciously aware, this conditioning, socialisation and acculturation steers how we make selections for jobs and teams, rate performance, make promotion decisions, who we choose to befriend, how we live our lives.  And yet we can bridge differences for our greater and mutual benefit. To paraphrase Rumi:  Out beyond ideas of religious and other codes, rules, ideas and belief or disbelief in these practices, there is a field of unconditional and transcendent compassion and love, where we are fully connected, are as one. I'll meet you there.

There is no denying the strong basic human yearning to belong, to find our ‘home’.  On Abraham Maslow’s famous needs hierarchy, being loved and belonging is followed by finding our self-esteem on the path to self-actualisation. Belonging is a primary intrinsic motivation.  Published in 1845, Hans Christian Andersen’s Ugly Duckling is referred to by Clarissa Pinkola Estés as “a psychological and spiritual root story ... one that contains a truth so fundamental to human development that without integration of this fact, further progression is shaky ...”   She illuminates, … when an individual’s particular kind of soulfulness, which is both instinctual and a spiritual identity, is surrounded by psychic acknowledgement and acceptance, that person feels life and power as never before. Ascertaining one’s own psychic family brings a person vitality and belongingness”. (Estés, C. P. 2008) 

So we search in our homes, relationships, churches, synagogues, mosques, sanghas, sorbets, clubs, schools, communities and institutions, workplaces, even gangs - for safe places where we feel that we belong, are loved, can live meaningful lives, experience well-being, find our identity. (Wilson, R.E. Jr. 2018)
At work, we look for:

  • the spirit of this workplace
  • a sense that people love their work
  • recognition, acceptance and being treated as a real, unique person
  • genuine, authentic community
  • knowledge that what we do is worthy of the long hours spent and the commitment made
·         a place where we can exercise our special areas of giftedness

Some will use the example of a machine gunner and ammunition-belt-feeder together in a foxhole, facing a common enemy. They don’t have to be friends to get the job done. They need to be competent, and appreciate and respect the other’s competence.
However, wherever possible, most opt for friendship, the discovery of kindred souls, a space where members ‘have each other’s backs’, and see each other through - rather than see through each other. A place where they feel at home. So I prefer Piero Ferrucci’s story of a man allowed to visit heaven and hell while alive. In hell people sat at tables where the most marvellous feast was laid out. But they were miserable, emaciated. Their eating utensils were too long, so they couldn’t feed themselves. In heaven he found exactly the same situation except here people were happy and healthy. They fed each other. (Ferrucci, P.2004)

Like wild geese or carrier pigeons we have a homing instinct. But, a cautionary word: this ‘homing instinct’ can sometimes lead to a fitting-in bias, which results in a few to behaving in safe, politically correct and conforming ways – even at the expense of honest self-expression, suppressing the creative tension of difference, and transparency. A ‘muzzling’ of their true feelings and opinions (and ability to ‘shine’) occurs. This causes them and the team to operate well below full potential. (Gino, F. & Staats, B. 2015). However much desired by organisations, belonging cannot be forced, and must be authentic. It requires a psychologically safe environment where people are free to take off their masks, be real and vulnerable, reach out to and support each other, grow together.

What to implement and How to go about it?

At the end of this article is a menu of implementation options covering doing, thinking and feeling actions a leader can instigate. Hands, head and heart.

This menu is offered as a basis for your organisation (whatever its size, nature and maturity level) to embark on some serious conversations, to form views and ideas away from expert - vendor pressure, to avoid ‘me too-ism’ (as we’ve seen happen in so many cases of competitive positioning and strategy formation, the rush to learning organisations, undertaking vision, values, culture, higher purpose exercises), and to allow the people who do the work and populate the organisation to authentically craft a place where diversity-inclusion-belonging is not cynically hijacked for ulterior corporate motive. Rather, basic yearnings are genuinely catered for. A diverse place characterised by trust, friendship, fellowship, belonging and love.  And members are able to share what has formed them, troubles them, inspires them.

A primary principle here is that “a lack of team psychological safety may inhibit experimenting, admitting mistakes, or questioning current practices in teams.”  (Tofte, G. 2016, citing Edmondson, A.C. 1999)

The menu is designed to help you implement your decision on where you wish to be in the diversity stakes, and to inform your people development and supporting programmes, policies, processes, practices.

In deciding what actions to trigger, don’t underestimate the power on our lives of what we are so often unaware of: those unconscious forces pushing, pulling or constraining us; our built in, hidden impulses and drivers, often undetected. An illustration:

Dr Gabor Maté, interviewed by Tami Simon of Sounds True on Tues Mar 21, 2017, told of being in Budapest a day after the WWII German occupation, when he was 2 months old. His mother called their paediatrician: "Would you please come see my son?    Because he's crying all the time". And the paediatrician says, "Of course I will come, but I should tell you (this) all my Jewish babies are crying". And so that anecdote told by my mother speaks to the very essence of childhood experience, which is to say that what happens to the parents happens to the child.

Unconscious bias may stay dormant for a long time. Years ago I was posted to London by my then employer, having spent my prior career in South Africa. I prided myself on being liberal, actively anti-apartheid and pretty much ‘together’ as a person. I felt very much at home in England. Not long after arriving I felt deep compassion at the plight of homeless people living under bridges, sleeping on cardboard, begging, angry, resentful, apathetic, cowed by life. I had never felt such intense compassion before.
After a while I was able to work out that, back home, all the homeless people I came across there were black. It took ages to face this unconscious conditioning and bias of mine, to come to terms with the shame that surfaced, and move forward with a changed perspective.    

 End Thoughts about Diversity at its best
When it comes to demonstrating the power of diversity, South Africa is no shining light. Why should I have the audacity to write for readers beyond our shores?!  Surely there is more to be learned at a place like Auroville in Southern India.  (“Auroville wants to be a universal town where men and women of all countries are able to live in peace and progressive harmony, above all creeds, all politics and all nationalities. The purpose of Auroville is to realize human unity” - founder Mirra Alfassa.

Nelson Mandela’s vision and ideals held much promise for a diverse, non-racial, ‘rainbow nation’ of equals. But 25 years later we are crippled by government corruption, incompetence, divisiveness, state creep and state capture.
Yet we still have something we can turn to, the social value of Ubuntu, which if taken up and applied, has much healing potential. 
The Ubuntu concept, experience and practice of (expressed in Xhosa) umntu ngumntu
ngabanye abantu, recognises that people are people through other people (deeply interconnected), where the community-good holds sway, and where personal transformation takes place in a caring, compassionate, respectful, participative space. All belong.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu is on record as saying, “You might have much of the world’s riches, and you might hold a portion of authority, but if you have no Ubuntu, you do not amount to much”. Applying Ubuntu allows people to move beyond their conditioned beliefs and values, stereotyping and prejudices - to find common ground and their shared humanity.

We can also offer the idea of isivivane.  Isivivane is a Zulu / Nguni word, although the concept is also found in other African cultures including the Khoikhoi.  It is a ‘collective’ sharing of a powerful higher purpose, the belief that all things and people are interconnected and bound together.  In this ‘collective’ everyone’s role and effort is equally important, equally appreciated. The Zulu proverb Ukuphosa itshe esivivaneni means to make a personal contribution to a great and worthy task. Everyone who walks past an isivivane (pile of stones, place of importance) puts their stone on the pile that is a collective, co-operative, and growing monument. (Kokopelli Partners Limited. 2016).  ‘In doing this, every traveler becomes part of the common purpose and identifies with a certain good cause”.  (Lessem, R. & Nussbaum, B. 1996)

Diversity, Inclusion and Belonging are three distinctly different concepts that deserve to come together. In a diverse workplace (where there are lots of differences), employees who feel included (recognised for their unique (sometimes potential) contribution and thus appreciated) get engaged and help boost performance, and if this can lead to a culture of real belonging (where people feel at home, see each other through) then something magical happens. To sum up, a lovely Shona proverb recounted by Lovemore Mbigi and Jenny Maree: chra chimive hachitswane inda : A thumb working on its own is worthless. It has to work collectively with the other fingers to get strength and be able to achieve. (Mbigi, L. & Maree, J. 1995)

The menu we have presented here is intended to be indicative and illustrative rather than comprehensive.

The boundaries between the hands, head and heart activities listed above are blurred and should not be seen to be fixed. On the other hand, it is possible to be trapped into one particular category – for example a tendency to place emphasis on ‘head’ activities (people analytics, neuroscience and behavioural economics) to the exclusion of hands and heart needs.

*In the Jewish tradition, there is the idea of Midrash. Midrash involves fleshing out a story we only have the barest details for – the bones of the story. Re-telling a story, filling in the gaps in order to expand, putting oneself into another character and supplying details that are not recorded. This allows for different interpretations of meaning and personal revelations and insights. Often a different picture brings deeper understanding


*** Blend bees and butterflies. To imbed and connect projects to the rest of the organisation, ensure that projects are not ‘secret’ and hidden, are widely owned. Project team members are bees - devoted to the hive of activity happening within the project. Wherever possible, they actively encourage visits by, progress sharing with and process inputs from affected internal departments, external stakeholders and HR and IT (to the extent that these functions are not sufficiently embodied in the project membership) - butterflies. This is an open, accepting, inclusive technique. (Williams, G. 2019)

© Graham Williams, 2019



Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi  (2009)   The danger of a single story.
Audia, Pino  (2012)  G. Train Your People to Take Others’ Perspectives.
Block, Peter (2018) Community: the structure of belonging    Abundant Community, July 16, 2018
Edmondson, A. C. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 350–383. Retrieved from
Estés, Clarissa Pinkola (2008) Woman Who Run with the Wolves: contacting the power of the wild woman Rider  
Ferrucci, Piero (2004) What we may be: techniques for psychological and spiritual growth through psychosynthesis  Jeremy P. Tarcher/ Penguin, New York
Gino, Francesca Prof (Harvard Business School) and Staats, Bradley, Assoc
Prof (Kenan-Flager Business School) (2015) Why Organisations Don’t Learn Harvard Business Review November, 2015
Hamilton, Rebecca (2015) Bridging Psychological distance March 2015 HBR
Kethledge, Raymond M & Erwin, Michael S. (2017)   Lead Yourself First: Inspiring Leadership Through Solitude  Bloomsbury, 2017
Kokopelli Partners Limited - Advised by Eugenie Banhegyi, Steve Banhegyi, Jim Heaney Cougar and Ralf Sibande  (2016) Isivivane for change and cooperation: leave no stone unturned  
Lessem, R & Nussbaum, B (1996) Sawubona Africa: Embracing four worlds in South African management Zebra Press
Mbigi, Lovemore & Maree, Jenny (1995) Ubuntu: The Spirit of African Transformation Management Knowledge Resources, Randburg, 
Rohr, Richard (2016) Daily Meditation: Community: Diversity in Community Centre for Action & Contemplation Friday 22nd April, 2016
Tofte, Guro (2016). Team psychological safety as a moderator in the relationship between team leadership and team learning in management teams. Master Thesis: Work and Organizational Psychology Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, 2016. (involving 135 Norwegian and 81 Danish leadership teams)
Williams, Graham (2019) How to Use Project Teams to Foster a Benevolent Leadership Culture Culture  University Mar 12, 2019
Williams, Graham with Rosenstein, David (2016) From the Inside Out: the human dynamics of sustainability
Williams, Graham (2016) Ancient Wisdom for Modern Workplaces
Williams, Graham; Fox, Peter & Haarhoff, Dorian (2015) The Virtuosa Organisation: the importance of virtues for a successful business Knowledge Resources
Wilson, Robert Evans Jr. (2018) Longing for Belonging: acceptance by a group is a fundamental human need.
Psychology Today Jul 16, 2018